Conclusion

The Nazi persecution of people labelled as gypsies and gypsy half-breeds in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia affected most of the Roma and Sinti living there. The Protectorate government gradually adopted all the anti-Gypsy regulations that were implemented in Nazi Germany during the 1930s, starting with forced settlement and constant police surveillance. From mid-1942, the Nazis pursued an openly racist policy. In the summer of 1942, a decree was adopted to combat the so-called gypsy plague and an census of Gypsies and Gypsy half-breeds was carried out, that would later form the basis for the imprisonment of about a third of those identified as Gypsies in the newly created gypsy camps in Lety u Písku and Hodonín u Kunštátu. During their existence from the summer of 1942 to the summer of 1943, about 2,700 men, women and children were imprisoned there. Almost 540 of them died there due to catastrophic living conditions.

With the decree of SS leader Heinrich Himmler from December 1942, that ordered imprisonment in the concentration and extermination camp in Auschwitz-Birkenaufor all gypsies and gypsy half-breeds from the Reich and its subordinate territories, all other plans for the future of the Roma and Sinti discussed by the Nazis were rendered invalid. Thus, another 4,500 protectorate gypsies and gypsy half-breeds were deported in March 1943 in several mass transports to the gypsy camp in Auschwitz-Birkenau, where most of them perished. All of them together make up the more than 5,000 Roma, Sinti and other people labelled as gypsies from the territory of today's Czech Republic, who were murdered as part of the Nazi persecution of gypsies.

Local authorities carried out the persecution of gypsies in the Protectorate, but still this persecution was an essential part of the final solution to the gypsy question ruled by the Reich. A large number of Czech citizens, who held positions at various levels, took part in it in varying intensity and extent. The Czech majority society, which has deep-rooted prejudices and stereotypes against the Roma and Sinti, thus bore its share of responsibility for the crimes committed.

List of used archival sources and literature:

Archival sources:

Moravský zemský archiv [Moravian Land Archives]

  • B 124, Krajský národní výbor Brno [Regional National Committee Brno], III. manipulace [III. manipulation]:

  • - box 1871, inv. no. 1536 – Cikáni (1942–1951) [Gypsies (1942–1951)]

Státní oblastní archiv v Třeboni [State Regional Archives in Třeboň]

  • CT Lety [Gypsy camp Lety]:

  • - box 3, inv. no. 38 – Vyhláška Okresního úřadu Písek o soupisu cikánů vydaná dne 17. 7. 1942 [Decree of the District Office in Písek on the census of gypsies issued on 17 July 1942]

  • - box 14, inv. no. 75 – Změny stavu, propuštění z cikánského tábora, seznamy zemřelých [Changes in the number of prisoners, releases from the gypsy camp, death lists]

  • - box 20, inv. no. 83, osobní spisy muži [personal files men]

  • - box 23, inv. no. 96 – Epidemie tyfu [Typhus epidemic]

 

Laws and regulations:

Literature:

  • Rickmann, Anahid S. „Rassenpflege im völkischen Staat“. Zum Verhältnis der Rassenhygiene zur nationalsozialistischen Politik. Bonn: Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Bonn, 2002.

  • Nečas, Ctibor. Romové na Moravě a ve Slezsku (1740-1945). Brno: Knižnice Matice moravské, 2005. 475 p.

  • Nečas, Ctibor. Romové v České republice včera a dnes. 3rd ed. Olomouc: UP Olomouc, 1999. 132 p.

  • Nečas, Ctibor. Českoslovenští Romové v letech 1938-1945. In: Spisy Filozofické fakulty Masarykovy univerzity v Brně. Brno: Masarykova univerzita v Brně, 1994.

  • Nečas, Ctibor. Holocaust českých Romů. Praha: Prostor, 1999. 173 p.

  • Nečas, Ctibor. Andŕoda taboris. Tragédie protektorátních cikánských táborů v Letech a v Hodoníně. Brno: 1995.

  • Nečas, Ctibor. Nemůžeme zapomenout. Našti bisteras. Nucená táborová koncentrace ve vyprávěních romských pamětníků. Olomouc: Univerzita Palackého v Oloumoci, 1994. 244 p.

  • Nečas, Ctibor. Nad osudem českých a slovenských Cikánů 1939-1945. Brno: Univerzita J. E. Purkyně v Brně, 1981. 180 p.

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  • Serinek, Josef, Tesař, Jan and Ondra, Josef. Česká cikánská rapsodie. Praha: Triáda, 2006.

  • Memorial book: The Gypsies at Auschwitz-Birkenau = Księga Pamięci: Cyganie w obozie koncentracyjnym Auschwitz-Birkenau = Gedenkbuch: Die Sinti und Roma im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau: The gypsies at Auschwitz-Birkenau. München: Saur, 1993.

  • Váša, Pavel and Trávníček, František. Slovník jazyka českého. Praha: Fr. Borový, 1937.

  • Zimmermann, Michael. Rassenutopie und Genozid. Die nationalsozialistische Lösung der Zigeunerfrage. Hamburg: Christians, 1996. 547 p.

  • Benz, Wolfgang, Distel, Barbara and Königseder, Angelika. (Hg.): Ort des Terrors. Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager, Bd. 8. München: 2008.

  • Aly, Götz. Die restlose Erfassung: Volkszählen, Identifizieren, Aussondern im Nationalsozialismus. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, 2000.

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